Baro tafaasiisha 17 naadirka ah ee curiyayaasha dhulka falanqeynta

Waxaa jira 17 curiye oo loo yaqaan curiyeyaasha dhulka naadir, oo ay ku jiraan lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutium (Lu) iyo scandium (Sc) iyo yttrium (Y), kuwaas oo waxay si dhow ula xiriiraan 15 curiye ee taxanaha lanthanide.
Curiyayaasha dhulka naadirka ah waa koox ka kooban 17 walxood oo gaar ah kuwaas oo magacooda ka helay iskudhisyada ay saynisyahannadu u adeegsadaan soo saarista iyaga.

Kala soocidda curiyayaasha dhulka naadir

Guud ahaan, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium waxa loo yaqaan curiyayaasha dhulka naadirka ah, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium, iyo yttrium waxa loogu yeedhaa curiyayaasha dhulka naadirka ah.Marka loo eego isku ekaanshaha iyo kala duwanaanshaha sifooyinka jirka iyo kiimikaadka ee walxaha dhifka ah ee dhulka, marka lagu daro scandium (scandium waxaa loo kala saaraa sida walxo kala firdhisan) waxaa loo qaybin karaa saddex kooxood, taas oo ah, kooxda dhulka naadirka ah waa lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium , neodymium iyo promethium, kuwaas oo promethium waa curiye shucaac ah oo macmal ah.Kooxda dhulka ee dhifka ah waa samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium iyo dysprosium.Kooxaha dhulka dhifka ah ee culus waa holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, luteium iyo yttrium.

Dabeecadda

Curiyayaasha dhulka naadir waa biro aad u firfircoon oo leh sifooyin isku mid ah.Qiimaha caadiga ah waa +3.Inta badan ion-yada fuuqbaxaya waxay leeyihiin midab wayna fududahay in la sameeyo isku-xidhyo isku-dubbarid deggan.Soo saarista millatariga iyo beddelka ion waa hababka ugu fiican ee kala goynta dhulka naadir ah.Biraha dhulka naadirka ah sida lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium iyo neodymium guud ahaan waxaa lagu helaa korantada sababtoo ah barta dhalaalka oo hooseeya iyo roobabka cathode ee ku jira xaalad dhalaalaysa inta lagu jiro korantada.Laba hab milix ah ayaa diyaar ah: chloride iyo fluoride.Midka hore waxaa lagu daraa unugga elektrolytiga ah ee leh koloride dhulka naadir ah sida walxo ceeriin ah, halka kan dambe lagu daro qaab oksaydh ah.

Noocyada iyo codsiyada curiyeyaasha dhulka naadir

1. Curiyayaasha kooxda dhulka naadirka ah
Lanthanum (La)
Lanthanum si weyn ayaa loo isticmaalaa, sida loo isticmaalo qalabka piezoelectric, qalabka electrothermal, qalabka kulaylka, qalabka iska caabinta magnetic, qalabka luminescent (buluuga budada), alaabta kaydinta hydrogen, muraayad indhaha, qalabka laser, dhammaan noocyada kala duwan ee alaabta alloy.Lanthanum sidoo kale waxaa loo isticmaalaa diyaarinta alaabooyin badan oo kiimiko organic ah ee kicinta, filimka beddelka iftiinka iftiinka ayaa sidoo kale loo isticmaalaa lanthanum, wadamada shisheeye, saynisyahano doorka lanthanum ee dalagyada iyo "kaalshiyamka super" magac la mahadiyo.

Cerium (C)
(1) Cerium waxa hadda loo isticmaalaa kiciyayaal lagu nadiifinayo qiiqa baabuurta, kaas oo si wax ku ool ah uga hortagi kara xaddi badan oo qiiqa baabuurta ah in lagu sii daayo hawada.Isticmaalka dhulka naadirka ah ee aaggan ee Maraykanka ayaa ah saddex meelood meel isticmaalka guud.

(2) Ce:Nidaamka laser-ka ee LiSAF waa leys dowladeed adag oo uu sameeyay Mareykanka.Waxaa loo isticmaali karaa in lagu ogaado hubka bayoolojiga iyadoo la kormeerayo uruurinta tryptophan, waxaana sidoo kale loo isticmaali karaa daawada.

Praseodymium (Pr)
Praseodymium waa xaddi badan oo ah walxo dhul dhif ah, oo loo isticmaalo dhalooyinka, ceramics iyo qalabka birlabka.

(1) Praseodymium waxaa si weyn loogu isticmaalaa dhoobada dhismaha iyo dhoobada maalinlaha ah.Waxaa lagu qasaa dhalaalid dhoobada si loo sameeyo glaze midabka, waxaana sidoo kale si gaar ah loogu isticmaali karaa sida midabka dhalaalka hoostiisa.Midabka la sameeyay waa huruud khafiif ah oo leh cod saafi ah oo qurxoon.

(2) Loo isticmaalo in lagu sameeyo birlab joogto ah.Isticmaalka praseodymium raqiis ah iyo biraha neodymium halkii biraha neodymium saafi ah si ay u soo saaraan maaddooyinka magnetic joogto ah, ay antioxidant iyo sifooyinka farsamo si cad waa la wanaajiyey, waxaa laga baaraandegi karaa galay qaabab kala duwan ee magnets, si ballaaran loo isticmaalo in qalab elektaroonik ah oo kala duwan iyo matoorrada;

(3) ee dildilaaca batroolka.Dhaqdhaqaaqa, xulashada iyo xasiloonida kicinta dildilaaca batroolka ee la diyaariyey iyadoo lagu daray kobcinta praseodymium iyo neodymium Y zeolite shaandho molecular waa la horumarin karaa.Shiinuhu wuxuu bilaabay inuu isticmaalo isticmaalka warshadaha 1970-yadii, qadarka sii kordhaya;

(4) Praseodymium sidoo kale waxaa loo isticmaali karaa suufka xoqidda.Praseodymium sidoo kale waxaa si weyn loogu isticmaalaa fiber optic-ga.

Neodymium (Nd)
Neodymium waxa ay ahayd diiradda suuqa sannado badan sababtoo ah booskeeda gaarka ah ee dhulka naadirka ah.

(1) Isticmaalaha ugu weyn ee birta neodymium waa wax magnet joogto ah ndfeb.Imaatinka magnetka joogtada ah ee NdFEB waxay ku durtay firfircooni cusub iyo firfircooni xagga farsamada sare ee dhulka naadir ah.Magnet Ndfeb oo leh badeecada tamarta magnetic sare, oo loo yaqaan 'boqorka magnetka joogtada ah' ee casriga ah, ayaa si weyn loogu isticmaalaa qalabka elektiroonigga ah, mashiinnada iyo warshadaha kale ee leh waxqabadkeeda ugu wanaagsan.Guusha horumarinta alfa magnetic spectrometer, calaamadaynta sifooyinka magnetic ee magnets Ndfeb ee Shiinaha ayaa galay heerka heerka koowaad ee adduunka.

(2) Neodymium sidoo kale waxaa loo isticmaalaa walxaha birta ah ee aan birta ahayn.Ku darida 1.5% ~ 2.5% neodymium ee magnesium ama aluminium aluminium waxay hagaajin kartaa waxqabadka heerkulka sare ee alloy, cidhiidhiga hawada iyo iska caabinta daxalka, waxaana si ballaaran loo isticmaalaa sida qalabka hawada.Intaa waxaa dheer, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet waxay soo saartaa laydhka laser-gaaban waxaana si weyn loogu isticmaalaa warshadaha alxanka iyo jarista alaabta khafiifka ah ee dhumucdeedu ka hooseyso 10mm.

Promethium (Pm)
Promethium waa curiye shucaac ah oo ay sameeyeen reactors nukliyeerka.Isticmaalkeeda ugu weyn waa:
(1) Waxa loo isticmaali karaa il kulayl si loo bixiyo tamar caawisa ogaanshaha faakuumka iyo satalaytka macmalka ah.
(2) Pm147 waxay soo saartaa tamarta hoose ee β ray, oo loo isticmaalo soo saarista batariyada promethium, sida sahayda tamarta qalabka hagida gantaalada iyo saacadaha.Bateriga noocaan ah cabbirkiisu waa yar yahay wuxuuna socon karaa dhowr sano.Promethium sidoo kale waxaa loo isticmaalaa mitirka raajada ee la qaadi karo, fosfooraska, cabbirada dhumucda, iyo nalalka iftiinka.

2. Curiyayaasha kooxda dhulka naadirka ah ee dhexdhexaadka ah

Samarium (Sm)

Samarium, kaas oo ah midab huruud ah, waa alaabta ceeriin ee samarium cobalt magnets joogto ah, kuwaas oo ah birlabyada dhulka ee ugu horreeya ee isticmaalka warshadaha.Waxaa jira laba nooc oo magnets joogto ah: SmCo5 iyo Sm2Co17.
Nadiifinta oxide samarium ee loo isticmaalo magnets cobalt samarium uma baahna inay aad u sarreyso.Marka la eego qiimaha, qiyaastii 95% badeecada ayaa inta badan la isticmaalaa.Samarium oxide sidoo kale waxaa loo isticmaalaa capacitors dhoobada iyo kicinta.Intaa waxa dheer, samarium waxa kale oo ay leedahay sifooyin nukliyeer ah, kuwaas oo loo isticmaali karo sidii qalab dhismeed, walxaha xakamaynta iyo walxaha xakamaynta tamarta atomikada, si tamarta weyn ee ka dhalata fission nukliyeerka si badbaado leh looga faa'iidaysan karo.

Europium (Eu)
Europium oxide waxaa inta badan lagu isticmaalaa fosfooraska.Eu3+ waxa loo istcimaalaa firfircoone ahaan fosfooraska cas iyo Eu2+ fosfoorrada buluuga ah.Hadda Y2OS:Eu3+ waa fosfoorka ugu fiican ee hufnaanta luminescence, dahaarka xasilloonida iyo soo kabashada kharashka, oo ay weheliso hagaajinta waxtarka iftiinka iyo isbarbardhigga iyo tignoolajiyada kale, sidaa darteed si ballaaran ayaa loo isticmaalaa.

Gadolinium (Gd)
Gadolinium waxaa inta badan loo isticmaalaa:
(1) Qalabkeeda paramagnetic-ka ee biyaha-milmi kara waxay hagaajin kartaa shucaaca bini'aadamka ee magnetka (NMR) ee daaweynta caafimaadka.
(2) Baaruud oxide-keeda waxaa loo isticmaali karaa sida shabagga matrix tube oscilloscope iyo shaashadda raajada oo leh dhalaal gaar ah.
(3) Gadolinium ee gadolinium gallium garnet waa substrate kaliya ugu habboon xusuusta xumbo magnetic.

Terbium (Tb)
Inta badan codsiyada TERbium waxay ku lug leeyihiin aagag teknoolojiyad sare ah, kuwaas oo ah tignoolajiyada-degdegga ah iyo mashaariicda wax-goynta aqoonta.Codsiyada ugu muhiimsan waxaa ka mid ah:
(1) firfircoonida budada cagaaran ee fosfoor ee saddexda midab ee fosfoor, sida terbium activated phosphate matrix, matrix silicate, cerium magnesium aluminate matrix, oo ku jira xaaladda kacsan ee iftiinka cagaaran.
(2) Qalabka kaydinta magneto-optical, sanadihii la soo dhaafay, qalabka terbium taxane magneto-optical ayaa gaaray qiyaasta wax soo saarka ballaaran, iyada oo filimka TB-Fe amorphous uu sameeyay magneto-optical disc, sida qaybaha kaydinta kombiyuutarka, awoodda kaydinta ayaa kordhay 10 ~ 15 waqtiyo.
(3) Muraayadaha Magneto-optic, galaas wareega ee Faraday oo ay ku jiraan terbium waa shay muhiim ah oo lagu soo saaro wareegtada, go'doominta iyo wareegayaasha si weyn loogu isticmaalo tignoolajiyada laysarka.

Dysprosium (Dy)
Isticmaalka ugu muhiimsan ee dysprosium waa:
(1) Loo isticmaalo sidii wax lagu daro ee magnets-ka joogtada ah ee Ndfeb, ku darida 2% ~ 3% dysprosium magnetkan waxay wanaajin kartaa qasab.Dysprosium waxa ay ahaan jirtay baahi yar, laakiin iyada oo ay korodhay baahida loo qabo magnets Ndfeb, waxa ay noqotay wax lagu daro lagama maarmaan ah.
(2) Dysprosium sida firfircoonida fosfooraska, dysprosium trivalent waa firfircooni rajo leh oo ah xarun hal-luminescent ah oo ah agab fosfoor ah oo saddex midab leh, kaas oo inta badan ka kooban laba qaybood oo sii daaya, mid waa sii daynta jaalaha ah, kan kalena waa qiiqa buluuga ah, dysprosium doped phosphor. alaabta waxaa loo isticmaali karaa sidii fosfoor saddex midab leh.
(3) Dysprosium waa diyaarinta magnetostrictive terbium dysprosium iron (Terfenol) daawaha lagama maarmaanka ah alaabta ceeriin biraha, samayn kartaa qaar ka mid ah dhaqdhaqaaqa farsamo ee hawlaha saxda ah la xaqiijin karo.
(4) Birta Dysprosium waxa loo isticmaali karaa sida agabka kaydinta magneto-optical, oo leh xawaare sare oo wax lagu duubo iyo dareenka akhriska.

3. Cunsurrada kooxda dhulka naadirka ah ee culus

Holmium (Ho)
Isticmaalka ugu muhiimsan ee holium hadda waa:
(1) Loo isticmaalo wax lagu daro laambad halogen bir ah.Birta halogen lamp waa nooc ka mid ah nalka soo daaya gaaska, waxay ku saleysan tahay nalka meerkuriyada cadaadiska sare leh ee la sameeyay, dabeecadeeda waxaa ka buuxsamay halides dhul dhif ah oo kala duwan oo ku jira guluubka.
(2) Holmium waxa loo isticmaali karaa sidii wax lagu daro birta yttrium ama yttrium aluminium garnet.
(3) Yttrium aluminium garnet oo leh holmium (Ho: YAG) wuxuu soo saari karaa 2μm laser, iyo heerka nuugista 2μm laser ee unugyada aadanaha waa sarreeyaa, ku dhawaad ​​3 amarro ka sarreeya Hd: YAG.Markaa marka Ho: YAG laser loo isticmaalo qalliinka caafimaadka, ma aha oo kaliya hufnaanta iyo saxnaanta qalliinka ayaa la wanaajin karaa, laakiin sidoo kale aagga waxyeelada kulaylka ayaa lagu yarayn karaa.

Erbium (Er)
Erbium waxay ahayd diiradda dareenka sababtoo ah sifooyinka muuqda ee muuqda:
(1) Er3+ qiiqa 1550nm ayaa ah mid muhiimad gaar ah leh, sababtoo ah mawjaddani waxay ku taallaa khasaaraha ugu hooseeya ee fiber-ka indhaha ee isgaarsiinta fiber optic.Er3+ waxay ka gudubtaa gobolka dhulka 4I15/2 una gudubta heerka tamarta sare 4I13/2 ka dib markii lagu farxay iftiinka hirarka 980nm iyo 1480nm.Marka Er3+ ee gobolka tamarta sare uu dib ugu soo laabto gobolka oo uu soo saaro iftiinka 1550nm hirarka dhererka, fiber quartz wuxuu gudbin karaa iftiinka hirarka kala duwan, laakiin heerka qudhunka indhaha ee iftiinka kala duwan ayaa ka duwan.Heerka hoos u dhigista indhaha ee 1550nm inta jeer ee fiilada quartz waa kan ugu hooseeya (0.15dB/km), kaas oo ku dhow heerka hoose ee hoos u dhigista.
(2) erbium laser crystal kale iyo wax soo saarka 1730 nm iyo 1550 nm laser waa badbaado dadka indhaha, waxqabadka gudbinta atmospheric waa wanaagsan, qiiqa awoodda dhexgalka goobta dagaalka waa ka xoog, sirta wanaagsan, ma fududa ogaanshaha cadawga. Iftiimin tiro badan oo bartilmaameedyo ciidan ah, ka dhigay mid ammaan u ah isticmaalka millatariga la qaadi karo qalabka wax soo saarka.
(3) Marka Er3 + lagu daro galaaska, waxaa laga dhigi karaa maaddada laser-ka ee naadirka ah ee dhulka, taas oo ah maaddada laser adag ee leh tamarta garaaca ugu weyn iyo awoodda wax soo saarka ugu sareysa ee hadda.

Thulium (Tm)
Thulium waxaa inta badan loo isticmaalaa siyaabaha soo socda:
(1) Thulium waxa loo isticmaalaa il shucaac ah mishiinnada raajada caafimaadka ee la qaadi karo.Ka dib marka lagu sii daayo reactors nukliyeerka, thulium waxay soo saartaa isotope awood u leh inay sii deyso raajada, taas oo loo isticmaali karo in lagu soo saaro shucaaca dhiigga ee la qaadi karo.
(2) Thulium waxa kale oo loo isticmaali karaa ogaanshaha kiliinikada iyo daawaynta burooyinka, sababtoo ah waxa ay xidhiidh sare u leedahay nudaha burada, dhulka naadirka ah ee culus waxa uu ka badan yahay xidhiidhka naadirka dhulka, gaar ahaan thulium waxa uu leeyahay xidhiidhka ugu sarreeya.
(3) Thulium waxaa loo isticmaali karaa sida activator lao-Br: Br (buluug) ee budada fluorescent ee loo isticmaalo shaashadda raajada si kor loogu qaado dareenka indhaha, sidaas darteed hoos u dhigista soo-gaadhista iyo waxyeelada raajada ee aadanaha.Marka la barbar dhigo shaashaddii hore ee dareenka calcium tungstate, qiyaasta raajada waa la dhimi karaa 50%, taas oo muhiimad weyn u leh codsiga caafimaadka.

Ytterbium (Yb)
Isticmaalka ugu muhiimsan ee ytterbium waa:
(1) sida walxaha dahaarka kulaylka.
(2) sida walxaha magnetostrictive, maaddadani waxay leedahay hantida magnetostriction weyn, taas oo ah, ballaarinta goobta magnetic.
(3) Curiyaha Ytterbium ee loo isticmaalo cabbirka cadaadiska.Tijaabadu waxay caddaynaysaa in curiyaha ytterbium uu leeyahay dareen sare oo cabbirka cadaadiska, kaas oo furaya hab cusub oo loogu talagalay isticmaalka ytterbium ee cabbirka cadaadiska.

Lutium (Lu)
Isticmaalka ugu weyn ee lutetium waa:
(1) Wax-soo-saarka qaar ka mid ah aluminiumyada gaarka ah sida aluminium aluminium lutium ayaa loo isticmaali karaa falanqaynta firfircoonida neutron.
(2) Lutium nuclides xasilloon ayaa kicisa dildilaaca batroolka, alkylation, hydrogenation iyo polymerization.
(3) sida walxaha dheeriga ah ee yttrium iron ama yttrium aluminium garnet si loo hagaajiyo guryaha qaarkood.

Yttrium (Y)
Yttrium waa bir leh isticmaal balaadhan oo ay ka mid yihiin:
(1) waxyaabaha lagu daro birta iyo birta iyo daawaha aan bacriminta ahayn.
(2) Qalabka dhoobada ee Silicon nitride oo ay ku jiraan yttrium 6% iyo aluminium 2%, kuwaas oo loo isticmaali karo horumarinta qaybaha mishiinka;
(3) oo leh awoodda 400W nd yttrium aluminium garnet laser beam waxaa loo isticmaali karaa qodista, goynta, alxanka iyo farsamaynta farsamooyinka kale ee qaybaha waaweyn.

4. canaasiirta kala firdhay

Scandium (Sc)
(1) Warshadaha iftiinka.Waxa xiiso leh, isticmaalka scandium (sida walaxda ugu muhiimsan ee shaqada, maaha doping) waxay ku urursan tahay jihada iftiinka, waana cadaalad in loogu yeero wiilka iftiinka.Sida Scandium sodium lamp, unugyada cadceedda, il ray, iwm.
(2) Scandium qaabkeeda asaasiga ah ayaa si weyn loogu isticmaalay aluminium daawaynta daawaynta.
(3) Scandium qaabkeeda aasaasiga ah waxaa guud ahaan loo isticmaalaa alloysyada, iyo oksaydhka scandium ayaa sidoo kale door muhiim ah ka ciyaara walxaha dhoobada ah.Sawirka waxaa loo isticmaali karaa sida qalabka elektiroonigga unugyada shidaalka adag, laakiin sidoo kale waxaa loo isticmaali karaa xoog sare, heerkulka sare u adkaysta injineernimada walxaha silicon nitride sida cufiyeyaasha iyo xasiliyaha.
(4) Ku darista qadar yar oo Sc2O3 ah shidaalka nukliyeerka ee reactor heerkul sare ayaa ka fogaan kara isbeddelka qulqulka, korodhka mugga iyo dildilaaca uu keeno beddelka UO2 ilaa U3O8.
Curiyeyaasha dhulka naadir ayaa si weyn loogu isticmaalay qalabka elektiroonigga ah, kiimikooyinka petrochemical, metallurgy, mishiinada, tamarta, warshadaha iftiinka, ilaalinta deegaanka, beeraha iyo beeraha kale.


Waqtiga boostada: Agoosto-20-2022